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Curricula and Syllabi of FNSPE CTU in Prague

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Aktualizace dat: 28.8.2019

česky

Master degree programmeNuclear Engineering
Year 2
course code teacher ws ss ws cr. ss cr.

Compulsory courses

Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste17VPO Konopásková - - 2 zk - 2
Course:Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste17VPOIng. Konopásková Soňa CSc. / Ing. Losa Evžen Ph.D.-2 ZK-2
Abstract:The subject is focused on getting the knowledge on the system of radioactive waste and spent fuel management system, from the waste formation to their disposal to repository. Waste management subjects to licensing by Atomic law, what is a determining factor to the possibility of using different ways of waste management, i. e. collecting, sorting, treatment, processing, storage and disposal. Waste management in the Czech Republic and/or abroad is assured by more different technologies. To familiarize with these technologies is also a part of the subject.
Outline:1. Formation and characteristics of radioactive waste.
Definition of radioactive waste and its formation. Classification of radioactive waste by the type of radiation, activity, half life and radiotoxicity of the radionuclides concerned. Physical and chemical properties of radioactive waste, thermal power and criticality. Sorting of radioactive waste. IAEA classification. Classification of using the way of management.

2. Radioactive waste management within the life cycle of energetic and institutional waste.
Life cycle of institutional and energetical waste. Front part of the fuel cycle. Nuclear reactors operation. Back part of the fuel cycle. Decommissioning. Institutional waste life cycle. Radiation sources life cycle. Waste management with the respect to the waste life cycle.

3. Predisposal of radioactive waste.
Waste minimization at waste producer . Collecting waste in institutions (hospitals) and in nuclear installations. Sorting radioactive waste. Characterization of waste and its methods. Fragmentation, decontamination, chemical treatment, chemical processing, recycling of radioactive waste.

4. Processing of radioactive waste.
Objectives of waste processing. Liquid waste processing. Example of processing technology. Evaporation, condensation using solidification matrix, solidification. Incineration, dressing, processing of gas waste, sewage. Advanced technologies.

5. Treatment and recycling of radioactive waste. Situating the waste to the environment.
Processing of low- and intermediate level waste. Methods of processing, solidification process. Bituminization, cementation, polymeration, vitrification - application for different types of waste, advantages and disadvantages.

6. Transport of radioactive waste.
Waste packages, properties and characteristics of used waste packages. Testing of waste packages. Waste packages for low- and intermediate level waste. Containers for high level waste and for spent fuel. Transport, storage and disposal containers. Transport of waste, transport of spent fuel, transport within disposal.

7. Spent fuel management.
Wet and dry storage. Reprocessing. Transport. disposal. Storage vs. disposal arguments. Arguments for/against advanced technologies of processing.

8. Storage and disposal of radioactive waste.
Disposal of radioactive waste to subsurface repositories. Relation of the final waste form preparation process to the requirements for disposal and storage. Storage and disposal conditions of safe operation. Storage of liquid and solid waste. Storage of spent fuel, Interim storage, operational experience.

9. Safety issues of radioactive waste management.
Operational safety. Post closure safety. Emergency situations, accidents, emergency planning, Safety repost, safety assessment. Environmental impact assessment (EIA). Relation to licensing.

10. Elimination of radioactive waste using transmutation technologies.
Transmutation technologies as a tool to minimize waste volumes. Methods of reprocessing, transmutation and advanced technologies. Economical issues. Safety issues. Status and level achieved of advanced technologies in the Czech Republic.

11. Decontamination of surfaces and management of waste arisen. Adjustment of accidents, adjustment of old ecological burden.
Decontamination as a mean to remediate a site. Technological procedure and objectives. Relation to legal conditions. Release of waste to environment, clearance levels. Update of former procedure of waste disposal. Decontamination of workplace. Old. Ecological burden. Nuclear tests, impact of former practices. Consequences of mining and processing of materials containing natural radionuclides. Remediation - dispatching the impact of accidents and emergencies. Protection of workers, public and environment. Objectives of monitoring.

12. Decommissioning of nuclear installations and management of waste arisen.
Decommissioning of energetic installations. Decommissioning and closure of repositories. Phases of decommissioning. Responsibility of waste producers. Finances for decommissioning. Nuclear account. Management of low- and intermediate level waste. Management of spent fuel.

13. Legal environment in the process of radioactive waste management, public involvement issues.
Atomic Law and connected regulations of SONS. Radiation protection, nuclear safety, emergency planning. Relevant legislation out of Atomic Law. IAEA and NEA OECD - system of recommendations. Joint Convention. Public attitudes. Ecological groups. Means for public involvement. Means of communication.
Outline (exercises):-
Goals:Knowledge: detailed knowledge of the system of radioactive waste formation and management. Knowledge of the method of assessment of the risk arising from the waste and spent fuel existence, within the life cycle, and the choice of the waste management way and form.

Capabilities: orientation in the issue, application of knowledge achieved in other fields of the nuclear installations problems. Good orientation in Atomic Law, and in reg. SONS No. 307/2002 Coll. on radiation protection
Requirements:-
Key words:radioactive waste, spent fuel, nuclear safety, radiation protection, safety of waste management, disposal, storage
ReferencesKey references:
IAEA Safety Standards, Classification of radioactive waste, GSG-1, IAEA Veinna 2009
Act No. 18/1997 Coll. on Peaceful Utilisation of Nuclear Energy and Ionising Radiation (the Atomic Act), as amended

Recommended references:
Dlouhý Z.: Radioactive waste and spent fuel management, VUT Brno, VUTIUM, IBSN 978-80-214-3629-9, 2009 (in Czech)

Operator Course at VR-1 Reactor17OPK Rataj, Kropík 4 z,zk - - 4 -
Course:Operator Course at VR-1 Reactor17OPKIng. Rataj Jan Ph.D.4 Z,ZK-4-
Abstract:The lectures are focused on reasearch end experimental nuclear reactors, their typical experimental equipments, fuel for research reactors, control and instrumentation systems of nuclear reactors and operation of research reactors. The main part of lectures deals VR-1 reactor and its operation and nuclear safety of research reactors.
The lectures are supplemented with practices at VR-1 reactor including practical acquaint oneself with VR-1 reactor, operation of VR-1 reactor technological systems, start-up and operation of VR-1 reactor and training of VR-1 reactor control and operation.
Outline:1. Research and experimental reactors
Range: 1 lecture,
Topic of lecture: Research and experimental reactors. Typical experimental equipments of research reactors. The research reactor fuels. Instrumentation and control systems of research reactors. Dosimetry and radiation monitoring systems of research reactors.

2. Training reactor VR-1 - its characterisation and structure
Range: 2 lectures,
Topic of lectures:
Reactor VR-1: detailed characterisation and description of its structure and description of instrumentations and equipments which are important for VR-1 reactor operation.
Experimental equipments of VR-1 reactor: complete overview and description of VR-1 reactor experimental equipments.

3. Training reactor VR-1 - operation and its management
Range: 3 lectures,
Topic of lectures:
Safety and operational documentation of VR-1 reactor: safety reports, limits and conditions, on-site emergency plan, operation rules and regulations.
Management of VR-1 reactor operation: the rules of shift operation, qualification and professional training, quality assurance system in reactor operation, operational inspections.
Safety operation of VR-1 reactor: assurance of nuclear safety, radiation protection, physical protection and emergency preparedness.

4. Safety of research nuclear facilities
Range: 2 lectures,
Topic of lectures:
Legal framework (acts and decrees) in Czech Republic, fundamentals of nuclear safety during commissioning and operation of nuclear facilities.
Fundamentals of quality assurance, emergency preparedness, radiation protection of nuclear facilities.

Outline (exercises):1. Reactor VR-1
Range: 1 practice
Topic of practice: Practical acquaint oneself with VR-1 reactor, reactor vessels, fuel IRT-4M, control rods, neutron source, instrumentation and control system, water system, dosimetry systems, system of physical protection, auxiliary systems.

2. Operation of the reactor technological systems and manipulation at the VR-1 reactor
Range: 1 practice
Topic of practice: Operation and service of the reactor technological systems (water systems, air distribution system, electric components), manipulators used at the reactor, fuel handling, control rod handling and manipulation with experimental devices at VR-1 reactor.

3. Start-up of the VR-1 reactor
Range: 1 practice
Topic of practice: Practical acquaint oneself with human machine interface of VR-1 reactor, signalling system, safety signals, commands and messages of reactor control system, reactor operation modes, reactor set-up before its initialisation and start-up, start-up of the reactor.

4. Operation of the VR-1 reactor
Range: 1 practice
Topic of practice: Putting reactor into operation, manual and automatic operation, increasing and decreasing the power, various inspections and checks on the instrumentation and control system.


Goals:Knowledge: detailed knowledge of nuclear research facilities and nuclear safety, complete knowledge of VR-1 reactor and its components and devices, knowledge of operation documentation and operation management of VR-1 reactor.
Ability: orientation in the given problems, start-up and operation of VR-1 reactor.
Requirements:17EXRF, 17DYR
Key words:nuclear research reactor, reactor control system, nuclear fuel, training reactor VR-1, nuclear safety, radiation protection, physical protection, emergency preparedness
ReferencesKey references:
Textbook for preparation and tests of personnel at nuclear research facilities - Book No. 3 Research and experimental reactors, State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague 2004 (only in Czech)
Textbook for preparation and tests of personnel at nuclear research facilities - Book No. 4 Technical characteristic of research reactors in Czech Republic, State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague 2004 (only in Czech)
Textbook for preparation and tests of personnel at nuclear research facilities - Book No. 5 Safety and operation of research reactors, State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague 2004 (only in Czech)

Requirements of regulatory body for nuclear research facilities in the field of nuclear safety, radiation protection, physical protection and emergency preparedness, safety instructions, State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague 2004 (only in Czech)

Recommended references:
Safety report of training reactor VR-1, CTU in Prague, 2007 (only in Czech)
Rataj, J. et al.: Reactor Physics Course at VR-1 Reactor, Department of Nuclear Reactors, CTU in Prague, 2010, ISBN 978-80-01-04584-8

Media and tools:
reactor VR-1

Nuclear Safety17JBEZ Heřmanský, Kříž 4+0 zk - - 4 -
Course:Nuclear Safety17JBEZprof. Ing. Heřmanský Bedřich CSc.4 ZK-4-
Abstract:Introduction: History and evolution of nuclear power plant safety. Classification of events, incidents, accidents, accident of US NPP TMI-2, accident of Chernobyl NPP. Basics of nuclear safety - legislative approach: safety principles of NPP, legislative frame of nuclear power plant safety, international requirements on NPP safety, defense-in-depth, safety culture, classification of NPP states and criteria of acceptance, safety analysis. Severe accidents of NPP with pressurized water reactors - engineering and physical approach: loss of coolant accident (LOCA), anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). Safety systems of modern NPP with pressurized water reactors: VVER, EPR, AP-1000.
The course consists of two parts: first is secured by prof. B. Heřmanský; the second one is secured by a group of external instructors from NRI and SONS coordinated by Z. Kříž (NRI). Instructors belong to notable experts in various fields of nuclear safety who works at least 30 years in the field, some of them have experience from international organizations- IAEA, NEA.
Outline:1. Introductory lecture
Scope: 1 lecture

Role of the course within study-program, relationship to other courses, goals of the course. Issue of severe accidents with fuel meltdown. ALARA principle and issue of linearization of the radiation effects. Relationship of risks and costs in assuring safety. Evolution of safety philosophy.

2. Accident classification
Scope: 1 lecture

The importance of incidents and accidents classification. Classification of incidents and accidents according to engineering and physical aspects: I.- reactivity insertion accident , II.- loss of coolant accident, III.- heat removal accident, IV.- other accidents, V.- external effects. INES - International Nuclear Event Scale: seven levels, methods of incidents and accidents evaluation, examples of particular levels. List of initiating events for NPP accident analysis.

3. Accident of TMI-2 NPP
Scope: 1 lecture

Babcock-Wilcox reactors, their design and safety systems. A brief outline of the accident evolution and its immediate causes. The failure of the media and the failure of NPP information system. Technical aspects of the accident, time sequence of events, expected core damage, formation of hydrogen in the core, bubbles removal. Comparison with NPP Mülheim-Kärlich. Analysis of the accident evolution after ten years: reconstructed course of events and actual damage to the reactor. Conclusions and lessons learned.

4. Accident of Chernobyl NPP
Scope: 1 lecture

RBMK reactors, their design and safety systems. Advantages and disadvantages of channel-type reactor. Risks of RBMK reactors operation. The course of the accident and its immediate causes. The positive coefficient of reactivity and wrong design of the control rods. Additional analysis of the accident by an international expert group and new data on the causes of the accident. Corrective safety facilities. Sarcophagus construction and the current status. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Risks of further operation of the NPP with RBMK reactors. Can a similar accident occurs in an NPP with VVER reactor?

5. Basics of nuclear safety (legislative approach)
Scope: 2 lectures

Safety principles of nuclear power plants and the legislative framework for NPP safety: radiation protection, nuclear safety, physical protection, emergency preparedness. Atomic law, decree No. 195, European law and the use of nuclear energy. International requirements on projects of new nuclear power plants: IAEA Safety Standards Series, European Utility Requirements (EUR), WENRA association.

Safety analysis:
Classification of NPP states: Category I - normal operation, Cat II .- accidents with low frequency, Cat III .- rare accidents, Cat IV. - limiting accidents. Criteria of acceptance. Specific criteria of acceptance. ATWS. Limits and conditions for safe operation. Safety analysis: deterministic approach, probabilistic approach. Computational codes: verification and validation, experimental base (ISP), conservative approach, best estimate approach.


6. NPP defense-in-depth and safety culture
Scope: 1 lecture

Defence-in-depth principle. Basic physical barriers: fuel, cladding, primary loop pressure boundary, containment. Five levels of defense-in-depth: 1 - prevention of failure, 2 - systems for normal operation, 3 - safety systems, 4 - specialized safety systems, 5 - emergency plans. Gen. III reactors defense-in-depth. Safety culture: definition and nature, universal characteristics of safety culture, requirements on strategic level, safety culture indicators.

7. LOCA and severe accidents
Scope: 2 lectures

Phenomenological description of LBLOCA

Rupture of the main circulation piping on NPP with PWR (LBLOCA). Phenomenological description of the accident: blowdown, refill, reflood, and long-term core cooling. Fuel behavior during the accident. Specific LOCA criteria of acceptance. Analysis of LBLOCA for NPP Temelin. Calculation codes for LOCA analysis. New (probabilistic) approach to evaluation of safety analysis outcomes.

Serious NPP accident with fuel meltdown
High- and low- pressure sequence of serious accident with fuel meltdown. Phenomenological description of a typical low-pressure sequence. Processes inside reactor vessel melt-through, interaction of corium with concrete, processes inside containment. Examples of hypothetical accidents leading to low-pressure sequence.

8. Safety systems of NPP
Scope: 3 lectures

Safety systems of NPP with VVER reactors
Safety features of pressurized water reactors. Trends in safety systems of NPP with PWR. Evolution of safety systems of NPP with VVER reactors: specifics of NPP with VVER reactors evolution, VVER-440 /V-230 systems, Finnish NPP Loviisa, NPP with VVER-440 of the second Generation (V213), barbotage condenser system, further evolution of VVER safety systems. NPP Temelin safety systems: design, engineering and technological part, electrical part, I&C, construction part (containment). Safety systems of NPP with VVER of the III. generation.

Safety systems of gen. III NPP: EPR
Safety requirements on gen. III NPP (EUR). Safety systems of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor (EPR): basic characteristics, layout, safety concept, defense-in-depth. EPR safety systems.

Safety systems of gen. III NPP: AP-1000
Active and passive safety systems. Safety systems of US PWR AP-1000: basic characteristics, layout, safety concept, defense-in-depth. AP-1000 safety systems.

9. Nuclear safeguards (Z. Kříž)
Scope: 1 lecture

Surveillance as a necessary part of infrastructure, role of government, requirements on surveillance (independence, competence, financial security, etc.), main areas of evaluation activities, inspections, requirements, decisions, IAEA recommendations, historical trends and situation in the world and in Czech Republic - SONS

10. Approval process for nuclear facilities (J. Dušek)
Scope: 1 lecture
Main stages of approval process (siting, construction, operation) according to Atomic Act, requirements on safety documentation content, safety analysis and acceptance criteria, approval process for changes (life extension, power increase)SONS decisions with conditions

11. Probabilistic safety assessment (J. Dušek)
Scope: 1 lecture
Deterministic/probabilistic assessment, PSA method, types of PSA (1 - 3), fault and event trees, acceptance criteria, practical use of PSA (changes assessment, risk monitoring, risk -informed procedures

12.Nuclear fuel safty (M. Hrehor)
Scope: 1 lecture

Nuclear fuel requirements (standard operation, transients, accidents (LOCA), acceptance criteria (evolution, differences) and their verification, higher enrichment and higher burn-up impact

13. Research for safety (M. Gregor)
Scope: 1 lecture

National and international research programs (NEA, EU projects), safety research need, research topics (transients, materials, fuel, human factor), experiences and benefits for Czech nuclear programme

14. Personel in nuclear facilities (J. Egermayer)
Scope: 1 lecture

Research and experience with NPP personnel, requirements on personnel ( SONS edict no. 315/2002 Sb.), selected personnel, qualification verification of personnel - licenses (professional, health, psychological), practical experience

15. Principles for ensuring safety (A. Miasnikov)
Scope: 2 lectures
Basic principles for ensuring the fuel and core safety, their practical applications, requirements on material, construction, degradation mechanisms and reducing of their impact

16. Radioactive wastes (K. Jindřich)
Scope: 1 lecture
Basic principles - minimization, processing and storage of RA waste, waste types in term of state of matter, activity, hazardousness, radioactive waste repository, system of barriers, state conception for radioactive waste processing, present state and perspectives in Czech Republic

16.Utilizing of operational experience (Z. Kříž)
Scope: 2 lectures
Importance of operational experiences utilizing (events, accidents) for safety, requirements on experience utilizing system, main process stages (collection, analysis, causes, corrective actions, lessons learned), national and international experience exchange systems (IRS, WANO), practical example of NPP event analysis
Outline (exercises):-
Goals:Orientation in classification and evolution of events, incidents and accidents of NPP. Detailed knowledge of causes, evolution and consequences of the two largest NPP accidents (TMI, Chernobyl). Knowledge of nuclear safety basics. Overview of NPP safety systems and their resistance against potential incidents and accidents.
Orientation in given issue, understanding of serious accident importance for nuclear power global safety. Overview of issues in assuring safety of gen. II (current NPPs) and gen. III (new nuclear source) NPPs.
Requirements:17ZAF, 17JARE, 17TER, 17DYR,17PRF
Key words:NPP safety, nuclear safety, safety systems of nuclear facilities, Chernobil NPP accident, TMI-2 accident, defense-in-depth safety culture, redundancy, diversity, single failure, common cause failure, acceptance criteria, safety analysis, accident analysis, serious accident, LOCA, ATWS, VVER, EPR, AP-1000, INES
ReferencesKey references:
Heřmanský B.: "Nuclear reactor safety I., II., III., IV." Textbooks, 2009,
(in Czech)

Recommended references:
"Basic Safety Principles for NPP", Rev.1. INSAG-12 report, IAEAVienna 1999
"European Utlities Safety Requirements", Vol.1, Rev. C, state 5, April 2001
"Accident Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants", IAEA, Vienna, December 2002

Electrical Equipment of Nuclear Power Plants17ELZ Bouček, Kropík 2+1 z,zk - - 3 -
Course:Electrical Equipment of Nuclear Power Plants17ELZIng. Bouček Stanislav2+1 Z,ZK-3-
Abstract:Lectures are composed as encyclopedic overview of power current electrotechnical facilities using LV, HV and VHV and are focused on their utilization in nuclear power plants including power extraction to electrical network. Theoretical background is supported by examples from work experience along with parameters of currently used facilities used in power engineering with focus on NPPs.
First, the general relations of the electric circuits theory and electromagnetic and electric field theories are recapitulated. Then the overview of electrotechnic materials (electric current conductors, semiconductors, magnetic flux conductors, insulators, dielectrics), their properties, applications. After general introduction, there follow lectures on particular types of electrical machines and devices, their characteristics, equivalent diagrams, phasor diagrams, applications in NPPs.
Finally, electric facilities of NPPs are presented including most applied power extraction schemes and schemes for assuring unit auxiliaries and for common plant operations. Examples of electric schemes of Czech NPPs are given including electric devices parameters.
Lectures are supported by technical visits of university labs (university power plant, high-voltage lab, electric machines lab). In the university power plant, the measurement on power unit model is carried out. This includes examples and evaluations of transients of artificially generated failure states.
Outline:1.Basic terms and relations of electrical circuits theory and theories of electromagnetic and electric fields. Maxwell equations.
2.Electrotechnic materials - insulators, dielectrics, their properties and applications, electric resistance testing, dissipation factor, resistor materials
3.Electrotechnic materials - conductors, magnetic flux conductors, semiconductors, superconductors, conductors for specific applications (carbons, copper alloys, contact materials), magnetization characteristics, dissipation reduction in magnetic circuits)
4.Electrical machines - classification, definition of characteristics, characteristics of machines and their loads, warming and its relation to the way of machine load, efficiency, electrodynamic forces
5.Non-rotating electric machines - transformers, classifications, principle, design, hour angle, characteristics, operational states, determination of parameters for equivalent diagram, phase diagrams, limiting and filtration properties
6.Non-rotating electric machines - specialized transformers, suppressors, chocking coils, machines? transformers, their specifics, accuracy, overcurrent number, desired purpose-dependent characteristics
7.Rotating electric machines - synchronous machines, principle, design, winding, cooling, rotors for turboalternators and salient pole alternators, attenuator function, rotor power supply, excitors, equivalent diagram, phase diagram
8.Rotating electric machines - synchronic machines, alternators, particular reactances and their influence on current transient during short-cuts, operational characteristics, static and dynamic stability, synchronizing, swinging, operation to transmission grid, solitary operation, synchronic engines and compensators
9.Rotating electric machines - asynchronous machines, principle, design, winding, start up and the means of starting currents decreasing, torque characteristics, equivalent diagram, cyclic diagram, phase diagram, asynchronous generators, single-phase asynchronous motors
10.Rotating electric machines - DC machines, applications, principle, design, winding, characteristics. Commutator motors, application, principle, design, winding characteristics. Stepper motors, applications, principle, design. Specialized motors, pumps for liquid metals.
11.Electrical facilities - switches for LV, HV and VHV, requirements on switching capabilities for particular switch types, design, placing into electrical diagram, methods of arc extinction
12.Fuse and protective electrical devices - fuses, circuit breakers, power protection, surge protection. Design, purpose, characteristics, and their placing into electrical diagram, selective protection, limiting capabilities, testing
13.NPP electrical equipment - requirements, power extraction scheme, unit auxiliaries? scheme and scheme of power-consumption for all operational and emergency states. Examples of NPP electrical schemes, including electrical equipment parameters.
14.Measurement on the physical model of power unit in university power plant: Alternator synchronizing with hard grid with evaluation of particular synchronization errors consequences. Magnetization impulse during transformer startup and its dependence on switching instant. Course of short circuit current in synchronous alternator. Emergency field weakening of the alternator and dependence of the transient on failure mode and shunt resistant size.
Outline (exercises):Laboratory exercise takes place in university lab in the last week of classes. It is focused on measurement on power unit model with examples and evaluation of transients at operational and artificially generated failure states (transformer startup pulses, imprecise synchronizing, synchronous alternator shortcut, alternator field weakening at various failure modes). Calculation of practical values is incorporated into lectures.
Goals:general overview of electrical power facilities used in NPPs, understanding of their principle, requirements on them in relation to other technologies, redundancy and diversity in assuring auxiliaries power supply in operational and emergency states of the unit to assure safe solution of particular situations

orientation in the field, ability to incorporate the obtained knowledge in context with knowledge of other NPPs technologies
Requirements:-
Key words:Transformer, synchronous alternator, asynchronous motor, DC motor, electrical equipment, switcher, nuclear power plant, auxiliary power consumption, assured power supply
ReferencesKey references:
Devices of nuclear power palnts, textbook ČVUT FJFI 1985, (in Czech)

Recommended references:
Electrical devices, textbook, ČVUT FEL 2000 (in Czech)

Media and tools:
university power plant laboratory

Intership Masters17PRAXD Kropík 1 týden z - - 1 -
Course:Intership Masters17PRAXDdoc. Ing. Kropík Martin CSc.1 tyd Z-1-
Abstract:Inteship is intended for acquiring of deeper knowledge about systems and operation of nuclear power plant. At present, it takes part at nuclear power plant Dukovany or Temelín, where students in form of extended excursion make the acquaintance of all important parts of nuclear power plant and gain basic ideas about activities of reactor physicist and operator. Part of the intership is also visit of power plant training center and simulator
Outline:Intership at nuclear powr plant proceeds according to plans prepared by nuclear power plant workers.

Example:
Monday: Organization questions
Tuesday: nuclear fuel: storage of fresh fuel, storage of spent fuel, manipulations
Wednesday: personal questions, accident management, nuclear safety
Thursday: power plant starup. full-scope simulator
Friday: emergency and accidents planning, nuclear power plant operation.
Outline (exercises):
Goals:Knowledge: detailed knowledge of individual systems and operation of nuclear power plant.

Abilities: orientation in problematic of nuclear power plant operation and its systems, handling with fuel elements.
Requirements:
Key words:nuclear power plant, primary circuit, secondary circuit, nuclear power plant operation, handling with fuel elements
References

Pre-diploma Seminar17DSEM Kropík - - 0+2 z - 2
Course:Pre-diploma Seminar17DSEMdoc. Ing. Kropík Martin CSc.-0+2 Z-2
Abstract:The subject seminar deals preliminary with master theses of students. It provides information about formal requirements of master theses, about subjects of master theses of colleagues and training of presentations of master theses during the state examination. The students can in the framework of the subject also attend faculty colloquiums with relation to their study.
Outline:The subject seminar deals preliminary with master theses of students. It provides information about formal requirements of master theses, about subjects of master theses of colleagues and training of presentations of master theses during the state examination. The students can in the framework of the subject also attend faculty colloquiums with relation to their study.
Outline (exercises):The subject seminar deals preliminary with master theses of students. It provides information about formal requirements of master theses, about subjects of master theses of colleagues and training of presentations of master theses during the state examination. The students can in the framework of the subject also attend faculty colloquiums with relation to their study.
Goals:Knowledge: formal problems of master theses, layout, literature, references, presentation of results, software tools for presentations.

Abilities: presentation of master theses results for its defense during the state examination.
Requirements:
Key words:master thesis, presentation, literature reference, faculty colloquium
References

Master Thesis 117DPJR12 Kropík 0+10 z 0+20 z 10 20
Course:Master Thesis 117DPJR1doc. Ing. Kropík Martin CSc.0+10 Z-10-
Abstract:Subject deals with problematic of officially given theme of master thesis that typically follows a research project, its defense during state examination that is necessary for completion of master study. The guarantor of the given theme is an advisor who defines literature, checks the progress and ability of work defense, and operatively solves problems of the work. Student individually solves given problem, typically studied in a bachelor work and a research project. Theme of work is approved by the head of department and the faculty dean after termination of the research project. The work is evaluated by one opponent. Contact hours relate to cooperation with the supervisor and are solved according to work needs. The subject is therefore not included in the faculty timetable.
Outline:-
Outline (exercises):-
Goals:Knowledge: a particular field depending on a given project topic
Abilities: working unaided on a given task, understanding the problem, producing an original specialist text
Requirements:-
Key words:master thesis
Referencesaccording to given master theses topic

Course:Master Thesis 217DPJR2doc. Ing. Kropík Martin CSc.-0+20 Z-20
Abstract:Subject deals with problematic of officially given theme of master thesis that typically follows a research project, its defense during state examination that is necessary for completion of master study. The guarantor of the given theme is an advisor who defines literature, checks the progress and ability of work defense, and operatively solves problems of the work. Student individually solves given problem, typically studied in a bachelor work and a research project. Theme of work is approved by the head of department and the faculty dean after termination of the research project. The work is evaluated by one opponent. Contact hours relate to cooperation with the supervisor and are solved according to work needs. The subject is therefore not included in the faculty timetable.
Outline:-
Outline (exercises):-
Goals:Knowledge: a particular field depending on a given project topic
Abilities: working unaided on a given task, understanding the problem, producing an original specialist text
Requirements:-
Key words:master thesis
Referencesaccording to given master theses topic

Optional courses

Reliability of Nuclear Power Plants17SPJE Dušek, Matějka 2+0 zk - - 2 -
Course:Reliability of Nuclear Power Plants17SPJEIng. Dušek Josef CSc.2 ZK-2-
Abstract:Course is the introduction to basics of reliability theory, especially to reliability of NPP systems. It familiarize with evolution, basic procedures and practical applications of modern approach to safety assessment of nuclear facility using probabilistic safety assessment method both in Czech Republic and in the world. The stress is put on methodology of buildup and assessment of fault trees for NPP systems important to safety and on understanding of such systems. Students are further familiarized with events tree method and within the course they independently buildup these trees for selected initiatory events. Finally, some operational experience and data on failures of Czech and foreign NPPs ((Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Paks) and basic information on international information systems IRS and INES are given.
Outline:1.Reliability analysis of complex systems and NPP probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) - basic terms, approaches to nuclear safety and reliability
2.Evolution of probability analysis in the field of nuclear energy in the world and in Czech Republic ((Rassmussen?s studies - its origin, content, contribution, deficiencies, German risks studies), preparation of PSA for NPP, PSA for Dukovany NPP and Temelin NPP, state and evolution of PSA in the world, IAEA activities in the field of PSA
3.Basic reliability indicators and their importance, terms from probability theory (conditional probability, Bayes formula, probability density, distribution function, intensity of failures, exponential and Weidbull distribution, Gauss distribution, median, fractile, failure trend parameter, probability of failure-free operation, failure intensity, preparedness), potential to increasing system reliability, importance of qualitative and quantitative reliability analysis, nature of decision-making process (e.g. depth of analysis and external effects, effect of maintenance strategy on system reliability, etc.), failure concept and success concept, relation between block diagram and failure tree reliability analyses, transition from logical diagram to failure tree.
4.Block diagram preparation, systems important to safety in NPPs with VVER reactors, practical applications of reliability analysis, failure tree method (tree of failure states), choice of top event, system reliability analyses procedure using failure tree, basic graphic symbols used in failure trees, their meaning, and means for their quantitative and qualitative assessment, rules for failure tree construction, means of failure tree description, advantages and disadvantages of failure tree
5.Analysis of human factor effect and its application to reliability analysis of nuclear power plants /MSc. K. Matejka jr./
6.Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of failure tree, Boole algebra rules and potential of their use in failure tree analyses, Shannon method, probability-table method, Gray?s code, Karnaugh table, Renk?s method, methods of searching the minimum critical sections, additive theorem and its use, principle and potential of failure tree simulation assessment, pseudo-random numbers, Monte Carlo method.
7.Possibilities of inclusion of component behaviour variability into failure tree analysis, computer codes for reliability analyses, input data for reliability analysis (incl. Input data for computer code), NPPs? information systems, used types of probabilistic distributions, recovery principle and means of it assessment , effect of periodical checks, maintenance, and tests on reliability and possibilities of their inclusion to reliability analysis, failures on requisition, common cause failures (CCF), uncertainty and sensitivity analysis
8.Event tree methodology, event tree method application on units with VVER reactors
9.Selective systems, their use, meaning, and way of assessment, practical exercise with reliability assessment on specific examples, international information systems IRS and INES.
10.Approach of SONS to PSA and use of PSA within work of state surveillance, Risk monitor with practical example /MSc. K. Matejka jr./
11.Operational experience and data on failures of Czech and foreign NPPs (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl), feedback, PSA practical application (risk oriented operational limits and conditions, emergency preparedness), tuition to lectures
12.Tuition to lectures
Outline (exercises):Practical training in assessment the specific model examples from the field of reliability.
Goals:Knowledge: basics of reliability theory, and, especially, of system reliability of NPPs, probabilistic safety assessment methods

Abilities: buildup and assessment of failure tree for NPPs systems important to safety and recognition of these systems
Requirements:-
Key words:Reliability theory, failure tree, PSA, human factor, safety assessment, reliability analysis, event tree
References1.Probabilistic Safety Assessment, workshop proceedings, NRI Řež 1987 (in Czech)
2.Procedures for Conducting PSA of NPP (level 1), Safety Series No.50-P-4, IAEA, Vienna, 1992
3.Fullwood R.R., Hall R.E. : Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Nuclear Power Industry - Fundamentals and Applications, Pergamon Press, 1988

New Nuclear Sources17NJZ Bílý 3+0 zk - - 3 -
Course:New Nuclear Sources17NJZIng. Bílý Tomáš Ph.D.3+0 ZK-3-
Abstract:Course is devoted to new nuclear power systems. Students get familiar with reactor designs for near term future as well as with designes under consideration for mid-term and long-term outlook. Course covers reactor systems of generation III+, gen. IV., accelerator driven systems, fusion systems, their concept, advantages, disadvantages, evolution, current status, outlook.
Outline:1.Introductory lecture
Scope: 1 lecture
Introduction to new nuclear power systems, nuclear reactors of gen III+, nuclear reactors of gen IV, accelerátor driven systems, fusion systems

2.Introductory lecture - fuel cycles for to new nuclear power systems
fuel cycles for to new nuclear power systems- requirements, sustainability, potential, advantages, disadvantages

3.Nuclear reactors of gen. III+ : pressurized water reactors
Scope: 1 lecture
Requirements on nuclear reactors of gen. III, reactor designs reaktorů EPR, AP-1000 and AES-2006 (VVER-1200) - basic characteristics, safety systems and principles, reactors layout

4.Nuclear reactors of gen. III+ : boiling water reactors and advanced CANDU reactor
Scope: 1 lecture
advanced boiling water reactor designs - ABWR, ESBWR, SWR-1000, advanced CANDU reactor design (ACR) - basic characteristics, safety systems and principles, reactors layout, evolution, current status, outlook

5. gen IV. reactors
Scope: 6 lectures
Sodium-cooled fast reactor
-basic concept, active core and fuel assemblies, safety systems and principles, reactors layout, evolution, current status, outlook

Gas-cooled fast reactors
-basic concept, active core and fuel assemblies, safety systems and principles, reactors layout, evolution, current status, outlook

Lead-cooled fast reactors
-basic concept, active core and fuel assemblies, safety systems and principles, reactors layout, evolution, current status, outlook

Very high temperature reactors
-basic concept, active core and fuel assemblies, safety systems and principles, reactors layout, evolution, current status, outlook

Molten salt reactors
-basic concept, active core and fuel assemblies, safety systems and principles, reactors layout, evolution, current status, outlook

Superctitical-water-cooled reactors
-basic concept, active core and fuel assemblies, safety systems and principles, reactors layout, evolution, current status, outlook

6.accelerator driven systems
Scope: 1 lecture
accelerator driven systems - basic concept, active core and fuel assemblies, safety systems and principles, evolution, current status, outlook

7.fusion systems - takamaks
Scope: 1 lecture
fusion systems of tokamak types - principle, basic concept, evolution, current status, outlook, ITER project

8.laser driven fusion systems
Scope: 1 lecture
principle of laser driven fusion basic concept, evolution, current status, outlook, HiPER project,

Outline (exercises):-
Goals:Knowledge:
Overview of new nuclear power systems. Orientation in various new and proposed reactor types - advantages, disadvantages, current status, outlook

Abilities:
orientation in the matter, understanding to current status of evolution of new nuclear power systems
Requirements:-
Key words:new nuclear power systems, gen. III+ reactors, gen. IV. reactors, accelerator driven systems, fusion systems
ReferencesKey references:
A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems, U.S. DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee and the Generation IV International Forum, 2002

Exploration Research Reactors17VYRR Sklenka 2+0 zk - - 2 -
Course:Exploration Research Reactors17VYRRdoc. Ing. Sklenka Ľubomír Ph.D.-2+0 ZK-2
Abstract:Course is devoted to research reactors and their applications for the need of research and industry. Students get familiar with research reactor types and their experimental programme along with experimental equipment needed for particular applications and their specifics.
The course is supported by technical visit to research reactor workplace.
Outline:1. Introductory lecture
Scope: 1 lecture

introduction, research reactor in the world - overview, research reactor applications, specifics of research reactor operation, state supervision and research reactor, research reactors and IAEA documents, R&D - fundamental research, applied research, education and training, university education, lifelong learning


2. Research reactor types
Scope: 1 lecture

Research reactor types, research reactor applications - type of activities - active core / reactor component characteristics examination, reactor as a source of radiation (neutrons, gamma-rays, beta-rays, ?); type of experiments - in-core and off-core experiments


3. Neutron activation analysis
Scope: 1 lecture

Neutron activation analysis - method principle, qualitative and quantitative NAA, NAA types - instrumental NAA (INNA), Cyclic instrumental NAA (CINNA), Epithermal instrumental NAA (EINNA), radiochemical NAA (RNNA), Pre-concentration NAA (PNNA), Derivative NAA (PNNA), prompt gamma NAA (PGNNA), delay gamma NAA (DGNNA), fields of NAA use, type of samples


4. Radioisotopes production
Scope: 1 lecture

Radioisotopes production - principle, applications in industry, medicine, agriculture, R&D

5. Neutron radiography
Scope: 1 lecture

Neutron radiography and tomography - principle, static radiography, motion radiography , real-time radiography, tomography,

6. Neutron capture therapy
Scope: 1 lecture

Neutron capture therapy (boron) - principle, applications

7. Material structure studies

Scope: 1 lecture
Material structure studies - concept of neutron scattering utilization (elastic and non-elastic), SANS method


8. Neutron transmutation
Scope: 1 lecture

silicon transmutation (doping), gemstone coloring, material irradiation- examination of material properties during ageing, principle of the method, practical applications, transmutation equipment design


9. Fuel and material testing
Scope: 1 lecture

Fuel and material testing - equipment development, testing and qualification. Fuel and material testing - ageing, corrosion, radiation effects, fuel and material qualification - temperature, pressure, radiation effects, development of new fuels and materials - fast reactors, high-temperature reactors, fusion, support of NPP operation - instrumentation tests, measurement methodologies


10. Nuclear data acquisition
Scope: 1 lecture

nuclear data - cross-section measurement, spallation reaction, fission yields, decay data, delayed neutrons

11. Other research reactor applications
Scope: 1 lecture

geochronology - samples dating, argon geochronology, fission track geochronology / U-Th geochronology, reactor as a source of positrons


12. Research reactor applications in praxis
Scope: 2 lectures

Technical visit of selected research reactor with emphasis on its utilization

Outline (exercises):-
Goals:Knowledge: detailed knowledge of research reactor types and their potential use for research and industry.


Abilities: orientation in the matter, application of obtained knowledge in other courses in the field of construction and use of research reactors
Requirements:-
Key words:nuclear reactor, research reactor, training reactor, research reactor applications, neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production, neutron radiography, neutron capture therapy, material structure examination, neutron transmutation, nuclear fuel and material testing, nuclear data acquisition, positron sources
ReferencesKey references:
Utilization Related Design Features of Research Reactors: A Compendium, Technical Report Series, IAEA-TSR-455, IAEA, Vienna, 2007

Recommended references:
The applications of research reactors, IAEA-TecDoc-1234, IAEA, Vienna, 2001

Media and tools:
audiovisual equipment, selected research reactor

Criticality Experiment17KE Huml, Rataj 0+2 kz - - 2 -
Course:Criticality Experiment17KEIng. Huml Ondřej Ph.D. / Ing. Rataj Jan Ph.D.0+2 Z-2-
Abstract:Critical experiment is a semestral project focused on designing a new core configuration, its assembling and verification at the VR-1 reactor. Within the course the students will be familiar with the safety, operational and legislative requirements place on the critical experiment. Under the supervision of the lecturer, the students prepare a new core configuration at the VR-1, they perform its computational verification and prepare the relevant documentation required by SÚJB. The main practical part of the course will be focused on the realization of the critical experiment. Students will assemble and experimentally verify new core configuration at the VR-1 reactor. They have also to process all data from experiment, evaluate them and produce detailed document informing about the results of the experiment.
Outline:1. Basic requirements for the VR-1 core
1 lecture
Lecture topic: Familiarity with safety, operating and legislative requirements for the VR-1 core. Method of designing a new core configuration of the VR-1 reactor.

2. Method and range of determining of neutron-physical characteristics of the VR-1 reactor core.
1 lecture
Lecture topic: An overview of neutron-physical characteristics of the VR-1 reactor core determined within preparation of critical experiment. Familiarity with calculations methods used at VR-1 for determining its neutron-physical characteristics.

3. Critical experiment at VR-1
1 lecture
Lecture topic: Method of preparation and performing of basic critical experiment. Documented procedure of the basic critical experiment, its structure and content. Critical experiment at the nuclear reactor both experimental and power type.
Outline (exercises):The practical exercises take place at the training reactor VR-1.

1. Design of the core configuration.
1 exercise
Topic of lab exercise: Practical familiarity with calculations methods used for design of the VR-1 reactor core configuration. Practical preparation of project of new core configuration at the VR-1 reactor, including all necessary requirements.

2. Preparing of the documented critical experiment procedure.
1 exercise
Topic of lab exercise: Preparing of the documented critical experiment procedure for new core configuration at the VR-1 reactor. The procedure includes disassembling of the original core configuration and assembling of the new core configuration. The calculation of each step during the new core configuration assembling.

3. Determination of neutron-physical reactor core characteristics.
2 exercises
Topic of lab exercise: Calculation of neutron-physical characteristics of the designed core configuration. The analysis of results and preparation of documents describing the neutron-physical characteristics of the new core configuration.

4. Training of manipulations at the VR-1 reactor
1 exercise
Topic of lab exercise: Practical demonstration and training of manipulations with components of the VR-1 reactor core. Manipulation with fuel IRT-4M, vertical channels and reactor control rods.

5. Critical experiment at the VR-1 reactor
4 exercises
Topic of lab exercise: Training topic: Realisation and evaluation of the critical experiment with new core configuration. Disassembling of original core configuration and assembling of new core. Reaching the critical state with new core configuration and experimental determination of its neutron-physical characteristics.
Goals:Knowledge: knowledge in the field of design and preparation of new core configuration at research reactors, familiarity with methods used for determination of neutron-physical characteristics of research reactor, knowledge in the field of preparation, realization and evaluation of critical experiment with new core configuration.

Abilities: orientation in the given field, using of obtained knowledge in the field of science and research, skills in the field of preparation and realization of experiments, analyzing and interpretation of experimental data.
Requirements:Experimental reactor physics 17ERF
Key words:core configuration, neutron-physical characteristics, research reactor, critical experiment
ReferencesKey references:
Požadavky Státního úřadu pro jadernou bezpečnost na výzkumná jaderná zařízení pro zajištění jaderné bezpečnosti radiační ochrany, fyzické ochrany a havarijní připravenosti, bezpečnostní návod, SÚJB Praha, 2004.
Matějka, K., et al.: Experimentální úlohy na školním reaktoru VR-1, skripta ČVUT, ČVUT, Praha 2005.
Profio, A. E.: Experimental reactor physics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York 1976. ISBN 0-471-70095-9.

Recommended references:
Weston M. Stacey: Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York 2001, ISBN 0-471-39127-1


Simulation of NPP Operational States17SIPS Kobylka - - 0+3 kz - 3
Course:Simulation of NPP Operational States17SIPSIng. Kobylka Dušan Ph.D.0+3 KZ-3-
Abstract:This course is pointed to pass to students the idea about main operating features of nuclear power plants with various types of reactors, about physical coupling amid single components of nuclear power plants and about principles of operating. In the theoretical part, there is briefly described each power plant and its simulator and simulator?s physical background. The main part of this course is dedicated to practising of various tasks (rated output, transiensts, malfunction of components) on simulators. The course takes place in simulators of following power units: VVER-440, VVER-1000, ABWR and CANDU 6. During these exercises the basic physical features of system are always analysed and there are also given reasons of their changes and connections between them.
Outline:1. Introduction to simulators
Scope: 1 lecture
Simulator definition, simulator division according to approximation to reality, simulators importance in nuclear power, basic principles of simulators development, development environments for their development, exhibition of simple simulator of TU Delft reactor.

2. VVER-440 simulator
Scope: 1 lecture, 3 tutorials
Description of VVER-440 (NPP Dukovany) system and its control, description of physical background in simulator and automatic regulators which are implemented in simulator, simulator description, familiarization with simulator through exercises and analyses of power changes at nominal states and basic transients with use of automatic regulators, exercises and analyses of transients (loop set-back, turbo-generator shut- down, etc.), exercises and analyses focused on determination of system physical features, exercises and analyses of emergency situations (leaks at primary circuit, leaks at secondary circuit, pumps failures, etc.).

3. VVER-1000 simulator
Scope: 1 lecture, 2 tutorials
Description of VVER-1000 (NPP Temelin) system and its control, description of physical background in simulator and automatic regulators which are implemented in simulator, simulator description, familiarization with simulator through exercises and analyses of power changes at nominal states and basic transients with use of automatic regulators, exercises and analyses of transients (loop set-back, turbo-generator shut- down, etc.), exercises and analyses focused on determination of system physical features, exercises and analyses of emergency situations (leaks at primary circuit, leaks at secondary circuit, pumps failures, etc.).

4. ABWR simulator
Scope: 1 lecture, 1 tutorial
Description of ABWR system and its control, description of physical background in simulator and automatic regulators which are implemented in simulator, simulator description, familiarization with simulator through exercises and analyses of power changes at nominal states and basic transients with use of automatic regulators, exercises and analyses of transients (loop set-back, turbo-generator shut- down, etc.), exercises and analyses focused on determination of system physical features, exercises and analyses of emergency situations (leaks, pumps failures, etc.).

5. CANDU 6 simulator
Scope: 1 lecture, 1 tutorial
Description of VVER-440 (NPP Dukovany) system and its control, description of physical background in simulator and automatic regulators which are implemented in simulator, simulator description, familiarization with simulator through exercises and analyses of power changes at nominal states and basic transients with use of automatic regulators, exercises and analyses of transients (loop set-back, turbo-generator shut- down, etc.), exercises and analyses focused on determination of system physical features.

6. General evaluation
Scope: 1 tutorial
General evaluation of systems and their characteristics, regulation modes and dynamic features.

Outline (exercises):1. Introduction to simulators
Scope: 1 lecture
Simulator definition, simulator division according to approximation to reality, simulators importance in nuclear power, basic principles of simulators development, development environments for their development, exhibition of simple simulator of TU Delft reactor.

2. VVER-440 simulator
Scope: 1 lecture, 3 tutorials
Description of VVER-440 (NPP Dukovany) system and its control, description of physical background in simulator and automatic regulators which are implemented in simulator, simulator description, familiarization with simulator through exercises and analyses of power changes at nominal states and basic transients with use of automatic regulators, exercises and analyses of transients (loop set-back, turbo-generator shut- down, etc.), exercises and analyses focused on determination of system physical features, exercises and analyses of emergency situations (leaks at primary circuit, leaks at secondary circuit, pumps failures, etc.).

3. VVER-1000 simulator
Scope: 1 lecture, 2 tutorials
Description of VVER-1000 (NPP Temelin) system and its control, description of physical background in simulator and automatic regulators which are implemented in simulator, simulator description, familiarization with simulator through exercises and analyses of power changes at nominal states and basic transients with use of automatic regulators, exercises and analyses of transients (loop set-back, turbo-generator shut- down, etc.), exercises and analyses focused on determination of system physical features, exercises and analyses of emergency situations (leaks at primary circuit, leaks at secondary circuit, pumps failures, etc.).

4. ABWR simulator
Scope: 1 lecture, 1 tutorial
Description of ABWR system and its control, description of physical background in simulator and automatic regulators which are implemented in simulator, simulator description, familiarization with simulator through exercises and analyses of power changes at nominal states and basic transients with use of automatic regulators, exercises and analyses of transients (loop set-back, turbo-generator shut- down, etc.), exercises and analyses focused on determination of system physical features, exercises and analyses of emergency situations (leaks, pumps failures, etc.).

5. CANDU 6 simulator
Scope: 1 lecture, 1 tutorial
Description of VVER-440 (NPP Dukovany) system and its control, description of physical background in simulator and automatic regulators which are implemented in simulator, simulator description, familiarization with simulator through exercises and analyses of power changes at nominal states and basic transients with use of automatic regulators, exercises and analyses of transients (loop set-back, turbo-generator shut- down, etc.), exercises and analyses focused on determination of system physical features.

6. General evaluation
Scope: 1 tutorial
General evaluation of systems and their characteristics, regulation modes and dynamic features.
Goals:detailed knowledge of simulated systems, basic operational states and characteristics of systems, control modes of nuclear power plants, physical couplings amid devices of power plant, dynamics of systems
: judge dynamics behavior of nuclear power plant, orientation in devices on nuclear power plant and their functions
Requirements:17THN1, 17THN2, 17ZAF
Key words:simulator, operational states of nuclear power plant, VVER-440, VVER-1000, ABWR, CANDU 6
ReferencesKey references:
IAEA: Boiling water reactor simulator, Workshop material, IAEA, Vienna, 2003, IAEA-TCS-23
Bereznai G.: Introduction to CANDU systems and operation, University of Ontario, Ontario 2003

Recommended references:
IAEA: Reactor Simulator Development, Workshop material, IAEA, Vienna, 2001, IAEA-TCS-12

Media and tools:
PC classroom, simulator SPVS+EDU, simulator SPVS+ETE, simulator ABWR, simulator CANDU 6

Thermomechanics of Nuclear Fuel17TMP Kobylka, Valach - - 2+1 z,zk - 3
Course:Thermomechanics of Nuclear Fuel17TMPIng. Kobylka Dušan Ph.D. / ing. Valach Mojmír CSc.-2+1 Z,ZK-3
Abstract:In this course students are particularly introduced to thermomechanics of nuclear fuel. The first part is dedicated to the construction of fuel for various types of reactors and brief characteristics of used materials (fuel, cladding and construction materials). The main part of this course covers the detailed analysis of basic thermomechanical attributes of fuel within the scope of irradiation to the maximum burn-up. We go through and then carefully evaluate every physical model describing thermal and mechanical attributes of fuel rods as a complex and also as their parts (fuel, gap fuel-cladding, cladding). Finally there is a review with brief description and principles of numeric codes which are determined for thermomechanics fuel calculations.
Outline:1. Construction of fuel assemblies
Time range: 2 lectures
Introduction to thermomechanics of nuclear fuel, construction and detailed description of fuel assemblies for reactors: PWR, VVER, BWR, CANDU, VHTR, FBR. The main attention is focused to geometric and material characteristic of fuel, however in brief are described also its main operating conditions. Advanced types of nuclear fuel and development trends are also parts of overview.

2. Thermophysical properties of fuel
Time range: 2 lectures
Heat generation in fuel pellets, detailed description of thermophysical properties of fuel and critical review of their models with focus on UO2 a MOX fuel, they are described: thermal conductivity coefficient and its changes with burn-up, specific heat and density and processes, which have influence on it.

3. Mechanical behaviour of fuel
Time range: 1 lecture
Determination of basic terms, materials of fuel pellets, behaviour of fuel in nuclear reactor, deformation mechanisms (cracking, relocation, swelling, ?) and their models, grow of RIM on fuel boundary, fission gas release.

4. Thermophysical properties of cladding
Time range: 1 lecture
Detailed description of thermophysical properties of cladding and critical review of their models. Attention is focused on thermal conductivity coefficient and specific heat. High attention is focused on oxide layer grow, models of its grow speed and its thermophysical properties.

5. Mechanical behaviour of cladding
Time range: 1 lecture
Mechanical properties of cladding materials, deformation mechanisms (elastic, plastic, creep, irradiation grow), influence of oxide layer, influence of irradiation on mechanical properties.

6. Heat transfer in gap fuel-cladding
Time range: 2 lectures
Definition and description of heat transfer coefficient in gap fuel-cladding, physical phenomena which have influence on them and their changes during burn-up, models and their critical review.

7. Interaction fuel-clading
Time range: 1 lecture
Mechanical and chemical interaction fuel-cladding, gap closure, models of contact, modelling of interaction, growth of interlayer, PCI/PCMI

8. Termomechanical codes for modelling of fuel rod behaviour
Time range: 1 lecture
Basic structure, geometric simplification, thermal models, stress-deformation models, codes overview, input data, output data, comparison with experiments.

9. Fuel behaviour at design accidents
Time range: 1 lecture
Process of LOCA, process of accident with introduced reactivity, cladding bump, fuel pellets fragmentation, possibilities of fuel melting, cladding oxidation, transient phenomena, types of cladding disturbance.

10. Safety criteria of nuclear fuel
Time range: 1 lecture
Requirements on safety operation, design and operational limits, thermal, mechanic and corrosion criteria, experimental verification, role of thermomechanicof nuclear fuel in licensing process, thermomechanic analyses in safety report.


Outline (exercises):Creation of input file for code FEMAXI-6, calculations and discussion of results.
Goals:knowledge: knowledge of basic phenomena and processes in fuel rod during burn-up in reactor at nominal and abnormal operation and design accidents, influence of this phenomena on thermomechanical properties and temperature fields in fuel.

Abilities: orientation in issue, thermomechanical calculation of fuel
Requirements:17THN2, 17TERR
Key words:fuel rod, nuclear fuel, fuel assembly, thermomechanical properties, safety criteria, fuel pellet, fuel cladding, gap fuel-cladding, oxide layer, thermal conductivity
ReferencesKey references:
D. R. Olander: Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements, Report No. TID-26711-P1, Technical Information Center, Office of Public Affairs, Energy Research and Development Administration, Oak Ridge, TN USA, 1976
Bailly H., Ménessier D., Prunier C.: The Nuclear Fuel of Pressurized Water Reactors and Fast Reactors, Design and Behaviour, Lavoisier Publ. Inc., 1999
Suzuki M., Saitou H.: Light Water Reactor Fuel Analysis Code FEMAXI-6, JAERI, 2005

Recommended references:
Berna, G. A.; Beyer, C. E.; Lanning, D. D.: FRAPCON-3: A Computer Code for the Calculation of Steady-State, Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oxide Fuel Rods for High Burnups, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, 1997
Lanning, D.D., Beyer, C,.E., Painter, C.L.: FRAPCON-3: Modifications to Fuel Rod Material Properties and Performance Models for High-Burnup Aplication, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, 1997
Hagrman, D.T. at all: SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1 Code Manual Volume IV: MATPRO -- A Library of Materials Properties for Light-Water-Reactor Accident Analysis, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory EGandG Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, 1993
Carbajo, J.J., Yoder, G.L., Popov, S.G., Ivanov, V.K.: A Review of the Thermophysical Properties of MOX and UO2 Fuels, Journal of Nuclear Materials 299, 181-198, 2001

Media and tools:
PC classroom, codes: FEMAXI-6 and Cosmos/M

Radiation Protection of Nuclear Facilities17ROJ Starý - - 2+0 zk - 2
Course:Radiation Protection of Nuclear Facilities17ROJIng. Starý Radovan-2+0 ZK-2
Abstract:The course is aimed at gaining a deeper knowledge in the field of radiation protection of the biological effects of ionizing radiation; exposure assessment and its optimization for staff and personnel in nuclear facilities.
Outline:1. Radiation protection of nuclear facilities
Scope: 1 lecture
Introduction, purpose and tasks of radiation protection, safety culture in radiation protection, the purpose of radiation protection at the workplace. Literature review, study materials.

2. Dosimetry and ionizing radiation
Scope: 4 lectures
Quantities characterizing the radiation source (activity, emission of source, radioactive equilibrium),
Quantities characterizing the radiation field (Fluence, Fluence of energy, Radiance), interaction of radiation with matter.
Quantities characterizing the effects of ionizing radiation on the matter - exposure, dose, kerma, and their relationship
Protection against alpha, beta, gamma rays and neutron; methods for quick shielding calculation.

2. Biological effects of ionizing radiation
Scope: 4 lectures
Methods of irradiation of an organism. Distribution of radionuclides in a body.
Quantities used in the protection against ionizing radiation (dose equivalent, quality factor, effective dose, collective effective dose)
Sources of knowledge about the biological effects of ionizing radiation, biological effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms. Radiation effects in biological systems, effects of ionizing radiation on cell and tissue, Linear non-threshold theory (LNT) - and its disruption, DNA repair mechanisms.

3. Radiation Protection
Scope: 4 lectures
Radiation protection; principles of ALARA, Radiation Limits (SONS Decree No. 307/2002)
Method of protection against the effects of ionization radiation, ionizing radiation in the environment.
Stochastic and deterministic effects of ionizing radiation on human organism. Acute radiation sickness, radiation dermatitis.
Determination of exposure of staff during work with ionizing radiation and its assessment for radiation protection. Determination of the collective dose. Organization of work in terms of minimizing the exposure of workers and in a nuclear facility.
Outline (exercises):-
Goals:Knowledge: to acquire a deeper knowledge of the dosimetry of ionizing radiation and nuclear protection

Abilities: analyze and evaluate the radiation situation during work with ionizing radiation, optimize the exposure of staff and public
Requirements:17URO
Key words:radiation protection, ionizing radiation, biological effects, ALARA
ReferencesKey references:
Principles and eperinece of radiation protection, team authors, Státní úřad pro jadernou bezpečnost, SÚJB, Praha 2000 (in Czech)

Recommended references:
SOURCES AND EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION, UNSCEAR 2000 REPORT Vol. I, http://www.unscear.org
Bodansky D.: Nuclear Energy: Principles, Practices, and Prospects, 2nd ed. editionRadiation Detection and Measurement, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Springer-Verlag New York, 2004

Media and tools:
Portable devices dosimetry RDS120 Rados, RADOS200, Berthold LB122, Tesla NB3201. The monitoring system VR-1

Advanced Methods in Spent Fuel Reprocessing and Salt Reactor Technologies17PPSR Uhlíř - - 2+1 zk - 3
Course:Advanced Methods in Spent Fuel Reprocessing and Salt Reactor Technologies17PPSRIng. Uhlíř Jan CSc.-2+1 ZK-3
Abstract:The course describes methods used for fresh fuel production and spent fuel reprocessing with focus on chemistry of this processes. They are analyzed possibilities of reprocessing of fuel from common types of reactors and also from reactors gen. IV. High attention is given to technologies for production, processing and purification of liquid fuels of molten salts reactors in both types of fuel cycle: U-Pu and Th-U.
Outline:1. Chemical processes of fresh fuel production, 3 lectures
leaching (acid, alkaline) and factors of its affects, methods of uranium separation from extracts (sorption processes, solvent extraction processes, etc.) production and composition of yellowcake, methods of yellowcake purification to material of nuclear grade (solvent extraction processes with TBP, ...), production of UF6 for enrichment, reconversion of UF6 to UO2.

2. Processes for spent fuel reprocessing, 4 lectures
Spent fuel from U-Pu fuel cycle and its properties, partitioning and transmutation, PUREX process, advanced hydrometallurgy methods for transuranium elements separation, pyrochemical reprocessing, etc.

3. Advanced fuel types and their production, 1 lecture
The nuclear fuel for gen. IV. reactors and special methods of their production and reprocessing, fuel of VHTR reactors.

4. Technology of molten fuel and molten salt reactors (MSR), 3 lectures
Molten fuels, history and present technology of MSR, salts as fuel and their chemical and physical properties, fuel cycle of MSR, chemistry and technology of MSR, fluorides distillation, electrochemical separation.

5. Uranium-thorium fuel cycle, 1 lecture
Chemical processes for production and reprocessing of thorium fuel, cycle with molten fuel.
Outline (exercises):
Goals:Knowledge: detailed knowledge of processes for fresh nuclear fuel production and for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Knowledge of molten salt reactor technology and technology of
U-Th fuel cycle.

Abilities: orientation in issue, application of obtained knowledge in the field of nuclear fuel cycles and fuel economy.
Requirements:
Key words:spent nuclear fuel, solvent extraction, TBP, PUREX, partitioning, transmutation, MSR, yellowcake
ReferencesKey references:
1. Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation, OECD/NEA 1999
2. G.R.Choppin: Chemical separations in Nuclear Waste Management, DOE/EM-0591

Recommended references:
1. http://gif.inel.gov
2. http://www.ornl.gov